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Glove Guide

Types of Protective Gloves

There are many types of gloves available today to protect against a wide variety of hazards. It is essential that employees use gloves specifically designed for the hazards and tasks found in their workplace, because gloves designed for one function may not protect against a different function.

Gloves made from a wide variety of materials are designed for many types of workplace hazards. In general, gloves fall into four groups:

Leather, Canvas or Metal Mesh Gloves

Sturdy gloves made from metal mesh, leather, or canvas provide protection against cuts and burns. Leather or canvas gloves also protect against sustained heat.

  • Leather gloves protect against sparks, moderate heat, blows, chips and rough objects.
  • Aramid fiber, such as Kevlar®, protects against heat and cold. Gloves made of aramid fibers are cut and abrasion resistant and wear well.
  • Synthetic gloves of various materials offer protection against heat and cold, are cut and abrasion resistant and may withstand some diluted acids. These materials do not stand up against alkalis and solvents.

Fabric and Coated Fabric Gloves

Fabric and coated fabric gloves are made of cotton or other fabric to provide varying degrees of protection.

  • Fabric gloves protect against dirt, slivers, chafing and abrasions. They do not provide sufficient protection for use with rough, sharp or heavy materials. Adding a plastic coating will strengthen some fabric gloves.
  • Coated fabric gloves are normally made from cotton flannel with napping on one side. By coating the un-napped side with plastic, fabric gloves are transformed into general-purpose hand protection offering slip-resistant qualities.

Chemical-Resistant Gloves

Chemical-resistant gloves are made with different kinds of rubber: natural, butyl, neoprene, nitrile and fluorocarbon (viton); or various kinds of plastic: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene. These materials can be blended or laminated for better performance. As a general rule, the thicker the glove material, the greater the chemical resistance but thick gloves may impair grip and dexterity, having a negative impact on safety.

Some examples of chemical-resistant gloves include:

  • Butyl gloves are made of a synthetic rubber and protect against a wide variety of chemicals, such as peroxide, rocket fuels, highly corrosive acids (nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid and red-fuming nitric acid), strong bases, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and nitrocompounds. Butyl gloves also resist oxidation, ozone corrosion and abrasion, and remain flexible at low temperatures. Butyl rubber does not perform well with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated solvents.
  • Natural (latex) rubber gloves are comfortable to wear, which makes them a popular general-purpose glove. They feature outstanding tensile strength, elasticity and temperature resistance. In addition to resisting abrasions caused by grinding and polishing, these gloves protect workers' hands from most water solutions of acids, alkalis, salts and ketones. Latex gloves have caused allergic reactions in some individuals and may not be appropriate for all employees. Hypoallergenic gloves, glove liners and powderless gloves are possible alternatives for workers who are allergic to latex gloves.
  • Neoprene gloves are made of synthetic rubber and offer good pliability, finger dexterity, high density and tear resistance. They protect against hydraulic fluids, gasoline, alcohols, organic acids and alkalis. They generally have chemical and wear resistance properties superior to those made of natural rubber.
  • Nitrile gloves are made of a copolymer and provide protection from chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. Although intended for jobs requiring dexterity and sensitivity, nitrile gloves stand up to heavy use even after prolonged exposure to substances that cause other gloves to deteriorate. They offer protection when working with oils, greases, acids, caustics and alcohols, but are generally not recommended for use with strong oxidizing agents, aromatic solvents, ketones and acetates.

Remember, when selecting gloves to protect against chemical exposure hazards, always check with the manufacturer or review the manufacturer's product literature to determine the gloves' effectiveness against specific workplace chemicals and conditions.

Source: OSHA, "Types of Protective Gloves,"
https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3151.html#handarmprotection

Chemical Resistance Chart for Protective Gloves

The following table from the U.S. Department of Energy (Occupational Safety and Health Technical Reference Manual) rates various gloves as being protective against specific chemicals and will help you select the most appropriate gloves to protect your employees. The ratings are abbreviated as follows: VG = Very Good; G = Good; F = Fair; P = Poor (not recommended). Chemicals marked with an asterisk (*) are for limited service.

ChemicalNeopreneLatex/RubberButylNitrile
Acetaldehyde*VGGVGG
Acetic acidVGVGVGVG
Acetone*GVGVGP
Ammonium hydroxideVGVGVGVG
Amyl acetate*FPFP
AnilineGFFP
Benzaldehyde*FFGG
Benzene*PPPF
Butyl acetateGFFP
Butyl alcoholVGVGVGVG
Carbon disulfideFFFF
Carbon tetrachloride*FPPG
Castor oilFPFVG
Chlorobenzene*FPFP
Chloroform*GPPF
ChloronaphthaleneFPFF
Chromic acid (50%)FPFF
Citric acid (10%)VGVGVGVG
CyclohexanolGFGVG
Dibutyl phthalate*GPGG
Diesel fuelGPPVG
Diisobutyl ketonePFGP
DimethylformamideFFGG
Dioctyl phthalateGPFVG
DioxaneVGGGG
Epoxy resins, dryVGVGVGVG
Ethyl acetate*GFGF
Ethyl alcoholVGVGVGVG
Ethyl ether*VGGVGG
Ethylene dichloride*FPFP
Ethylene glycolVGVGVGVG
FormaldehydeVGVGVGVG
Formic acidVGVGVGVG
Freon 11GPFG
Freon 12GPFG
Freon 21GPFG
Freon 22GPFG
Furfural*GGGG
Gasoline, leadedGPFVG
Gasoline, unleadedGPFVG
GlycerinVGVGVGVG
HexaneFPPG
Hydrazine (65%)FGGG
Hydrochloric acidVGGGG
Hydrofluoric acid (48%)VGGGG
Hydrogen peroxide (30%)GGGG
HydroquinoneGGGF
IsooctaneFPPVG
KeroseneVGFFVG
KetonesGVGVGP
Lacquer thinnersGFFP
Lactic acid (85%)VGVGVGVG
Lauric acid (36%)VGFVGVG
Lineolic acidVGPFG
Linseed oilVGPFVG
Maleic acidVGVGVGVG
Methyl alcoholVGVGVGVG
MethylamineFFGG
Methyl bromideGFGF
Methyl chloride*PPPP
Methyl ethyl ketone*GGVGP
Methyl isobutyl ketone*FFVGP
Methyl metharcrylateGGVGF
MonoethanolamineVGGVGVG
MorpholineVGVGVGG
NaphthaleneGFFG
Napthas, aliphaticVGFFVG
Napthas, aromaticGPPG
Nitric acid*GFFF
Nitric acid, red and white fumingPPPP
Nitromethane (95.5%)*FPFF
Nitropropane (95.5%)FPFF
Octyl alcoholVGVGVGVG
Oleic acidVGFGVG
Oxalic acidVGVGVGVG
Palmitic acidVGVGVGVG
Perchloric acid (60%)VGFGG
PerchloroethyleneFPPG
Petroleum distillates (naphtha)GPPVG
PhenolVGFGF
Phosphoric acidVGGVGVG
Potassium hydroxideVGVGVGVG
Propyl acetateGFGF
Propyl alcoholVGVGVGVG
Propyl alcohol (iso)VGVGVGVG
Sodium hydroxideVGVGVGVG
StyrenePPPF
Styrene (100%)PPPF
Sulfuric acidGGGG
Tannic acid (65)VGVGVGVG
TetrahydrofuranPFFF
Toluene*FPPF
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)FGGF
Trichloroethylene*FFPG
Triethanolamine (85%)VGGGVG
Tung oilVGPFVG
TurpentineGFFVG
Xylene*PPPF